About one-half of people with diabetes develop peripheral neuropathy. Neuropathy is a type of nerve damage caused by high blood sugar. While there is no cure for neuropathy, patients can find relief with pain management.
If you suffer from neuropathy, you may wonder, “Can neuropathy be reversed?” Read on to learn more about the symptoms, causes, and treatment for diabetic neuropathy.
What is Neuropathy?
Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Long-term high sugar levels cause damage to nerves. It is slowly developing and can take decades to become apparent.
Neuropathy often affects the legs and feet, but those nerves originate in the back. Those with diabetic neuropathy may experience persistent back pain and pain in the extremities.
Stages of Neuropathy
If left untreated, neuropathy becomes worse over time. There are five stages of neuropathy. When you notice any of the first signs of neuropathy, consult your doctor.
Stage 1: Numbness and Pain
When neuropathy is first developing, you will notice some numbness and pain. During this stage, the symptoms come and go. The beginning signs are subtle, but you cannot mistake them.
Stage 2: Persistent Symptoms
During stage 2, the pain and numbness become more persistent and regular. At this point, it becomes difficult to ignore the symptoms you experience. This is when most patients recognize that there is a problem.
Stage 3: Debilitating Pain
In stage 3, you experience pain almost every day, which begins interfering with daily life. The pain prevents you from taking part in everyday activities. Over-the-counter pain medication may not work for you at this point.
Stage 4: Constant Numbness
The fourth stage of neuropathy is when your feet and legs become numb. While this relieves some of the pain, it is not good. Numbness is a sign that your nerves are dying and are undergoing irreversible damage.
Stage 5: Complete Loss of Feeling
In the final stage, you lose all feeling in your lower legs and feet. Walking is almost impossible at this stage, and balance is affected. Your nerves are severely damaged, and you may need a wheelchair for mobility.
Radiculopathy vs Neuropathy
Neuropathy affects the peripheral nervous system, such as the legs and arms. Radiculopathy is when nerves get pinched at the root along the spine. This can also cause pain, weakness, and numbness in the hand.
Symptoms of Neuropathy
There are four types of diabetic neuropathy, and you may have one or more. The symptoms of neuropathy depend on which nerves are affected. Signs come so slowly that you may not notice a problem until your nerves are damaged.
Peripheral neuropathy is the most common type, affecting over 20 million people in the US. This type of neuropathy affects the legs and feet first, then the hands and arms. Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy may include:
- Numbness, tingling, or burning
- Loss of ability to feel pain or temperature changes
- Sharp pains
- Muscle weakness
- Extreme sensitivity to touch
- Ulcers, infections, or bone and joint damage of the foot
Your autonomic nervous system controls blood pressure, heart rate, digestion, and sex organs. Diabetes can affect nerves in these areas as well. Some symptoms of autonomic neuropathy include:
- Unawareness of low blood sugar levels
- Rapid drops in blood pressure that may cause dizziness or fainting
- Bladder or bowel problems
- Slow stomach emptying that causes nausea, vomiting, or loss of appetite
- Difficulty swallowing
- Increased or decreased sweating
- Difficulty with a sexual response (vaginal dryness or erectile dysfunction)
Proximal neuropathy affects thighs, buttocks, hips, or leg nerves. These symptoms often occur on one side of the body and may spread to both. Symptoms include:
- Severe pain in the thigh, hip, or buttocks
- Weak and atrophied thigh muscles
- Difficulty standing from a sitting position
- Chest or abdominal wall pain
Mononeuropathy or Focal Neuropathy
Mononeuropathy is damage to a single and specific nerve in the body. This may occur in the face, torso, arm, or leg. Symptoms of mononeuropathy include:
- Double vision or difficulty focusing the eyes
- Paralysis on one side of the face
- Numbness or tingling of the hands or fingers
- Weakness in the hand
- Shin or foot pain
- Pain in the front of the thigh
Your doctor will determine whether you are suffering from diabetic neuropathy. They will gather information about your symptoms and medical history and give you a physical exam. The doctor will check sensitivity levels to touch, temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tone.
Your doctor may also do a filament test for neuropathy to test the sensitivity in your feet. During this test, nylon fiber is used to check for loss of feeling in your limbs. Your ankle reflexes may also get tested.
There is no cure for diabetic neuropathy, but treatment can slow the progression. Managing your blood sugar and checking your feet often can prevent complications.
Blood Sugar Management
The most important thing you can do is to manage your blood sugar levels. Managing your diabetes can prevent nerve damage or keep it from progressing further.
Manage your blood sugar by eating a nutritious diet and exercising often. Be sure you also take all diabetes medication prescribed by your doctor. If you are a smoker, quitting smoking can also play a part in preventing neuropathy.
Often, foot problems are a complication of diabetic neuropathy. You may have sores that won’t heal or ulcers. These problems can lead to amputation of the foot if left untreated.
You can prevent these complications by taking good care of your feet. Regular exams with your doctor help as well. To protect the health of your feet, you should:
- Check your feet every day for sores, redness, and swelling
- Keep your feet clean and dry
- Keep your feet moisturized with lotion
- Wear clean, dry socks made of cotton or moisture-wicking material
- Wear well-fitting cushioned shoes to protect your feet
Medication may help treat the pain caused by neuropathy. Your doctor will have medication options and help you find the right one. Medication often works best in conjunction with other treatments.
Alternative therapies may also provide relief. These therapies include acupuncture, topical capsaicin, physical therapy, and spinal cord stimulation treatment.
Acupuncture is a part of traditional Chinese medicine where tiny needles get inserted into the skin and pressure points. In Western medicine, acupuncture stimulates nerves and muscles. It can boost your body’s response to pain and improve circulation.
Many people with neuropathy use acupuncture as a way to relieve chronic pain. It can restore nerve damage and release endorphins to relieve pain.
Capsaicinoids used for the treatment of pain date back to 4000 BC. This capsaicin was in the form of chilies. Capsaicin is now available in a cream, lotion, patch, and solution.
Topical capsaicin has analgesic effects on painful neuropathy. The capsaicin 8% patch is FDA-approved to treat this pain.
Physical therapy can improve strength in the areas affected by neuropathy. It may also help relieve some of the aches and stiffness of neuropathic pain.
Spinal Cord Stimulation for Neuropathy
Research shows that SCS for neuropathy is a safe and effective treatment for certain patients. It is cost-effective and may reverse the effects of neuropathy. It is most effective for patients with pain in the arms or legs.
A spinal cord stimulator gets implanted into the body. It sends low levels of electricity into the spinal cord to relieve pain. Nerve stimulation for neuropathy can stop the pain signals sent to the brain. A trial is successful if SCS removes 50% of a patient’s pain.
There are neuropathy doctors in Maryland can provide SCS therapy for your pain. Our doctors at Pain and Spine Specialists offer comprehensive pain management care. Neuropathy treatment can improve your quality of life as you live with neuropathy.
Can Neuropathy Be Reversed?
At this time, diabetic neuropathy cannot be reversed. The body is unable to repair nerve tissue damage. You can slow the process through blood glucose control and pain management.
Some damage might be permanent for diabetic neuropathy patients who leave it untreated. There is hope for those who catch neuropathy early on. Treatment and lifestyle changes can improve the symptoms of neuropathy.
Neuropathy Treatment Near Me
Now that we have answered the question, “Can neuropathy be reversed,” we know the importance of treatment and pain management for neuropathy. Treatment and management of neuropathy can improve the quality of life for those suffering. Now, you may wonder, is there a neuropathy doctor near me?
If you want neuropathy treatment in Maryland, look to Pain and Spine Specialists. Our board-certified physicians will give you a comprehensive exam to diagnose your neuropathy. Once we have your diagnosis, we will work with you to create a treatment plan for your neuropathy. Request an appointment today!