Headache and Migraine Specialists

Tension headaches and Migraines are often related to stress, depression, and/or anxiety. Whatever the cause may be, our pain management specialists can accurately diagnose and treat your condition with innovate therapies that will effectively address your pain over the long-term. 

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Headache and Migraine Services

Headache and Migraine pain can vary in pain severity, location of pain, type of headache, and frequency. If you believe you are suffering from headache or migraine it is important to get an accurate diagnosis from a pain specialists. The doctors at Pain and Spine Specialists will thoroughly evaluate your pain symptoms in order to diagnose your condition. 

Once we have an accurate diagnosis, we will work together with you to create a treatment plan that will effectively address your pain based on the type of headache and level of pain you are experiencing. 

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Patient Testimonials

Full 1

I LOVE LOVE LOVE this office. I was helping my mom find a place for her arthritis pain, and I explained to them how bad it was. They were able to schedule me the same week! That's almost impossible at any doctor's office...and then add COVID..... I was thrilled. I took my mom, and everyone was absolutely so sweet and kind

- Donyasha B.

Dr. Rao. I can't find the words to tell you how much he has meant to me. I followed him from an old practice to his very new high tech office. They offer so many different areas of assistance to those with issues from nutrition to spinal surgery...and much more. His office is professional.

- Mom To2

Full 1

Dr. Roa is such an amazing doctor! During my first visit he never tried to rush through my appt., he genuinely listened to all my concerns and then took his time to explain to me in detail all his recommendations and how they would help me.

- Nikki Walker

In the 3 years as a patient of Dr. Rao, it is my opinion that he is a phenomenal and extraordinary doctor. He keeps up to date with the latest treatment options, will sacrifice time no matter how many are in the waiting room to listen and explain. Dr. Rao has treated multiple patients with rare illnesses, and shows more empathy than any Dr. I’ve met.

- Mom To2

Full 1

I have now been with Dr. Rao for 13 years. He is the most caring Doctor I have ever been to! Dr. Rao makes you feel very comfortable at all times. I would not want to go to any other Doctor... I go to the Hagerstown location, everyone is very nice

- Theresa R.

The entire staff from the folks at the front desk to the Nurse, to the Physicians Assistant to the scribe that records the visit for the doctor - (great idea so the Doctor can focus on the patient!!!)

- NVA F.

Full 1

Completely the best care you could want the staff is so pleasant and caring and the doctors have true heart for healing, love being a patient here would give 10 stars if I could & absolutely the most caring during my procedure with Dr B

- Cathern C.

Always friendly, courteous, and efficient service. From the ladies, who work the front desk, to the nurses and the doctors. I've always had a good experience with the Harrisonburg office in Virginia.

Krystal Shaffer

Full 1

They scheduled my appointment very quickly so that I can get to help that I needed immediately instead of like most places having to wait two to three weeks to get in I called and was able to be seen the next day

- John H.

After transitioning from a pain and spine doctor in Columbia, MD.. The intake staff member at Pain and Spine Specialist made the scheduling a breeze. They were able to get me in within a week.

Rashawn JJ

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Digital Guide

A comprehensive guide with everything you need to know about our providers, locations, conditions we treat, treatments we offer, and many other frequently asked questions!

Pain and Spine Specialists Digital Guide pages

We Accept All Insurances

Individualized Patient Care

Board Certified Doctors

Patients Seen Within Two Weeks

Types of Headaches and Migraines

Headaches can greatly vary in location, type of headache, level of pain, and how often they occur. While the brain itself does not have pain signals and cannot feel pain (hence why patients do not feel anything when having brain surgery), there are other facets of the head that can lead to you feeling pain from a headache. Some of these parts are the many nerves in the head and face, muscles in the head, neck, and shoulders, and blood vessels. Most people may not be aware, but there are over 150 types of headaches and a headache/migraine is the most common form of pain. 

The most frequently experienced primary headaches are: 

Tension Headaches: 

The most common type of headache people experience is a tension headache, as they occur in three of every 4 adults. Tension headaches can occur from muscles tightening in your shoulders, neck, scalp, and/or jaw. They are often related to stress, depression, and/or anxiety.  

Those who have severe tension headaches can have them up to three to four times a week, but most only have mild headaches that occur occasionally. Tension headaches are typically characterized by pain on both sides of the head (bilateral), pain that is dull or even feels like a band or vice around the head, possible sensitivity to light along with nausea/vomiting. Most tension headaches last about 20 minutes to two hours.  


This is the second most common type of primary headache and is often more intense than tension headaches, as they are described as a pounding/throbbing kind of pain. Migraines are also accompanied by other physical symptoms, including nausea/vomiting, lightheadedness, sensitivity to light, and blurred or otherwise messed up vision. Migraines can last anywhere from four hours to three days and are two to three times more common in women than men.  

Migraines have different phases, although not everyone goes through each phase. The first phase is the premonition or prodromal phase and involves a change in mood or behavior before the actual headache. The next phase is the aura phase and involves visual, sensory, and motor symptoms such as numbness or tingling and vision changes. The headache phase is next and is the time when the pounding/throbbing pain occurs, along with other physical symptoms. Lastly, the resolution phase is when the pain starts to subside and people can feel fatigued or irritable after having the headache.   

Cluster Headaches: 

These headaches are not as common as tension headaches or migraines, but are the most severe type of primary headache. Cluster headaches occur five times more often in men than they do women and the usual person that deals with cluster headaches are middle-aged men with a history of smoking.  

Cluster headaches are called that because the head pain tends to come in groups or clusters. They generally occur one to eight times in a single day (hence the cluster aspect), during a period from two weeks to possibly three months (often during the same time of year). Individual headaches can last from 30 to 60 minutes and the headaches can completely disappear (what doctors refer to as remission) for months or even years, only to come back again.  

Cluster headaches always start on one side of the head, usually behind one eye, and can be throbbing and constant. The eye where the pain is located can become red and water, with a drooping eyelid and small pupil. There can also be swelling of the eyelid, a runny nose or congestion, and swelling of the forehead. Many people suffering from cluster headaches experience a pain so intense that they are not able to sit still and will start to pace or jog in place, which can lead to agitation. 

Other types of headaches include: 

  • Sinus Headaches 
  • Allergy Headaches 
  • Caffeine-Withdrawal Headaches 
  • Fasting Headaches 
  • Hangover Headaches 
  • Hunger Headaches 
  • Hypertension Headaches 
  • Menstrual Headaches 

Most people can alleviate some of these pains by improving their diets, improving their relaxing and sleeping habits, and taking over-the-counter pain relievers. 

Not all headaches require a doctor's attention. But frequent occurrences of headaches can be a symptom of a larger issue. Let your doctor know if you have frequent, sudden, and/or severe headaches. They will be able to determine if more medical attention is necessary. 

Causes of Headaches

Headaches are one of the top reasons why people miss work or school. It is not fully known what causes most headaches, but pain does derive from blood vessels, muscles, brain chemicals, and nerves. The unknown part is what triggers these parts to cause pain for most types of headaches. 

Migraines (and headaches in general) have been shown to run in families and it is thought that they result from nerve cells reacting to certain triggers. Those nerve cells then send impulses to blood vessels, which then cause pain. Some triggers for migraine can be lighting, noise, alcohol, bad sleeping habits, depression, stress, and changes in the weather.

Preventing Headaches

The biggest way to be able to prevent headaches is to learn what triggers them for you and avoiding those triggers as best as possible. What triggers headaches in you may not trigger them in someone else, so you will need to pay attention to what is happening before a headache starts. For example, if you notice that you tend to get a headache from inconsistent or lack of sleep then you should create a better sleeping routine.  

When To Worry About A Headaches

A minor headache is generally not cause for concern and can be treated with over-the-counter medication, drinking more water, and getting some sleep. However, headaches do range in severity and if you believe that your headache is not usual or the pain is too intense, then you should seek out medical assistance to make sure there is nothing more serious or an underlying problem occurring.  

If you start to have any of the following symptoms then it is best to get medical assistance immediately: 

  • A sudden, new, and unusually severe headache. 
  • Headaches that appear for the first time over the age of 50. 
  • Headaches that start after a head injury or accident. 
  • A major shift in patterns to your headaches. 
  • Headaches that continue to worsen over time. 
  • Headaches that are accompanied by neurological symptoms, such as weakness, dizziness, numbness or tingling, imbalance, difficulties with speech, mental confusion, memory issues, confusion or decreased alertness, and seizures. Fever, shortness of breath, rash, and stiff neck can also occur. 
  • An inability to complete daily activities because of head pain. 
  • Headache pain that wakes you up or causes pain and tenderness near your temples. 

For any of the following issues you should make an appointment with a medical professional relatively soon: 

  • Experiencing headaches three or more times a week. 
  • Persistent headaches that will not go away, even after taking over-the-counter medication and resting. 
  • Needing to take general pain relievers for most, if not all, days of the week. 
  • Headaches that occur after physical activity or strenuous work. 

Diagnosing Headaches

If you are suffering from frequent headaches, our physicians are board certified, and are dedicated to giving you a comprehensive exam that will aid in diagnosing the cause of your symptoms. Using advanced diagnostic techniques, our doctors will find out the reason for your pain, and then get you on the road to better health right away. Here are a few steps our physicians use when completing their comprehensive exams:

  • We take your complete medical history to identify or rule out possible causes of your pain.
  • We conduct a thorough physical exam.
  • We carefully review your symptoms, including how you would describe the pain (burning, achy, sharp, etc.).
  • We may order diagnostic tests, including x-ray, MRI or CT scan, to help us diagnose your headache pain.

Once we have an accurate diagnosis, we will work together with you to create a treatment plan that will effectively address your chronic headaches.

Headache Treatment Options

We offer several treatments that can help relieve headache pain, including:

Headache Specialists

At Pain and Spine Specialists, our headache specialists are committed to giving you the most effective treatment when treating your pain. We believe that all patients should have access to exceptional care. 

Our Providers

At Pain and Spine Specialists, our team of physicians and nurse practitioners are committed to giving you the most effective treatment when treating your pain. We believe that all patients should have access to quality care, and that is why you can find us conveniently located throughout Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

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Our Providers

At Pain and Spine Specialists, our team of physicians and nurse practitioners are committed to giving you the most effective treatment when treating your pain. We believe that all patients should have access to quality care, and that is why you can find us conveniently located throughout Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

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At Pain and Spine Specialists we are dedicated to providing the highest quality of care to our patients.We provide tailored services with each individuals comfort in mind. Select an option below:

Please note: We accept Workers Compensation Insurance and Personal Injury Patients 

Please note: We accept Workers Compensation Insurance and Personal Injury Patients 

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